A more subtle pattern can be observed in the correlations between the particle properties. The mathematical theories used to describe interactions between particles reference the following four properties:
- Electric charge
- Intrinsic spin
For the lightest particle generation, these are distributed as follows:
The following patterns can be identified:
- Only charged particles have masses.
- The masses are all different. This means that there may be an energetics which binds charge states to mass.
- Only fractionally charged particles have color, and they are far more massive than the particles with unit charge.
- We might assume that the sign of the charge alternates as the charge increases.
The patterns suggest that charge is a separable property, and that fractional charge may have something to do with color.
This attacks a fundamental precept of particle theory, that I will label uniticity: the particle's charge, mass, color and spin travel around as an inseparable unit. Why is this necessarily so? In relaxing this assumption, we might consider that neutrinos and photons, with zero charge and no mass, are pure energy. They both appear to move at the speed of light. If charge moves separately, maybe it moves at a different speed. This might help to explain certain of the apparently contradictory aspects of quantum theory (such as particle-wave duality, and the wave-function collapse).