Quantum Mechanics
What are the principle tenets of quantum mechanics, and their supportive evidence? Principle ideas are bulletted; supporting evidence is emphasized subsequently.

Spatial and temporal distribution of particle properties is characterized by a probability distribution, the wave function, which evolves according to a Hamiltonian that defines the potential field in which the particle moves.
Hydrogen spectra. Consideration of the relative phase of the wave functions might cast some light on orbital angular momentum.

Particles have intrinsic angular momentum, or spin, that is quantized in units of ½ of Planck's constant.
Atomic motion in a magnetic field.
Atomic state transitions through photon excitation and emission.

Fermions, with halfintegral spin, will not occupy a state already occupied by another fermion of the same type.
Energy levels of multielectron atoms.

Bosons, with integral spin, can have more than one instance in the same state.
Helium4, blackbody radiation.

Particle interactions are localized and discrete.
Electron and photon selfinterference, and particularly the twoslit experiment. Of particular interest is the BohmAhramov measurement, which shows that the wave function can be modified by changing the potential field, even if no classical force is exerted on the electrons.

"Wavefunction collapse"  conservation laws, notably for angular momentum, may be resolved over distances and times that appear to violate relativistic causality.
EinsteinRosenPodolsky paradox. However, there are arguments that the experimental studies manifest ensemble statistics, rather than quantum uncertainty.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computing. Again, a caveat that this is taken as manifesting theories of a multiverse that I find confounding.