#### Particle Dynamics

Fermions represent topological defects in the fields, formed when the endpoints of the oscillations (charges, from above) are wrapped around with stable topological knots when quasar formation forces that geometrically. The knot geometry gives rise to the fermion spin field.

The dimensional defects propagate preferentially in the least stiff temporal dimension. Coupling of the topological structures to the two stiffer temporal dimensions generates the other two particle families. The theory generates three, and only three, particle families.

Each particle can capture 0, 1, 2 or 3 charge endpoints, as per the topology of the knot. This matches the charge patterns of the observable fermions: 0 for the neutrino, 1 for the down quark, 2 for the up quark, and 3 for the electron.

Mass arises through the coupling of charge to the temporally "stiff" dimensions. The neutrino, which does not have any charge, has zero mass, and is not prohibited from decaying into the vacuum. The electron, which has an isotropic distribution of charge (one charge for each spatial direction) is next lightest. The quarks are heavier, as they have an incomplete charge structure.

Energetically, quarks rapidly condense into structures with isotropic charge structures. The color field is a charge rotation process: to emit a gluon, a quark rotates its charge to point along a new axis. The gluon propagates until it can cancel its dimensional structure on another quark, restoring the quark charge isotropy. This is SU(3), with the colors reinterpreted as charge orientations along the spatial dimensions.