Grand Unification

Einstein ended his career attempting to unify the mathematical theories of electromagnetism and general relativity. His effort, while ultimately fruitless, was motivated by the faith that since everything that we observe about nature happens at the same time, there must be one consistent set of equations that demonstrate the feasibility of the universe around us. That theory should be invariant under mathematical transformations. It was the consideration of these transformations that led Einstein to special and general relativity. Strangely, Einstein did not consider these ideas to be "revolutionary": they appeared to him to be a natural extension of the work of others.

However, the idea of mathematical invariance subsequently took a powerful hold over the community of theoretical physicists. The power of mathematical invariance is seductive. It is a healthy constraint on the imaginations of young theorists, particularly as the investment in new physics facilities has blown through decades and billions of dollars.

Along with the frame invariance of relativity, particle theory has adopted a few other principles to guide its search for a "grand unification": a theory that integrates all known physics. We list these below.

There are certain mathematical constraints that were required for a successful unification. These include:

Neither of these last two assertions is directly falsifiable.